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Additive Approach for Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. on Contaminated Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Using Bacteriophage Cocktail and Produce Wash.
Journal of Food Protection, 2013
Magnone, J.P., Marek, P.J., Sulakvelidze, A., and Senecal, A.G.
The incidence of foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce is of worldwide concern. Lytic bacteriophage cocktails and alevulinic acid produce wash were investigated for their effectiveness against the foodborne pathogensEscherichia coliO157:H7,Shigellaspp., andSalmonellaon broccoli, cantaloupe, and strawberries. Inoculated samples were treated with bacteriophagecocktails (BC) before storage at 10uC for 24 h, a levulinic acid produce wash (PW) after storage at 10uC for 24 h, or a combination ofthe washes (BCPW) before and after storage. All three treatments were compared against a 200-ppm free available chlorine wash.Wash solutions were prepared using potable water and water with an increased organic content of 2.5 g/liter total dissolved solidsand total organic carbon. BCPW was the most effective treatment, producing the highest log reductions in the pathogens. Producetreated with BCPW in potable water with a PW exposure time of 5 min resulted in the highest reduction of each pathogen for allsamples tested. The type of produce and wash solution had significant effects on the efficacy of the individual treatments. Thechlorine wash in water with higher organic content was the least effective treatment tested. An additive effect of BCPW was seen inwater with higher organic content, resulting in greater than 4.0-log reductions in pathogens. Our findings indicate that thecombination of antimicrobial BC with a commercial produce wash is a very effective method for treating produce contaminated withE. coliO157:H7,Shigellaspp., andSalmonellaeven in the presence of high loads of organic matter.
Escherichia coli (STEC)
Food Group
Fresh produce
Food Product
Broccoli, cantaloupe, and strawberries
Broccoli, cantaloupe, and strawberries