Phage Preparation Effective Against Salmonella
SalmoLyse® is an all-natural, non-chemical antimicrobial preparation for controlling the foodborne bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica in pet food. The active ingredients of SalmoLyse® are naturally occurring lytic bacteriophages that selectively and specifically kill Salmonella, including strains belonging to the most common / highly pathogenic serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Newport, Hadar, Kentucky, Thompson, Georgia, Agona, Grampian, Senftenberg, Alachua, Infantis, Reading, and Schwarzengrund. SalmoLyse® is specifically designed for treating pet foods that are at high risk for Salmonella contamination.
Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.
Heyse S1, Hanna LF1, Woolston J2, Sulakvelidze A2, Charbonneau D3.
1The Procter & Gamble Company, 8700 Mason-Montgomery Road, Mason, Ohio 45040, USA.
2Intralytix, Inc., 701 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, USA.
3The Procter & Gamble Company, 8700 Mason-Montgomery Road, Mason, Ohio 45040, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ?10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (≥2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P < 0.001) reduction compared with the phosphate-buffered saline-treated control in measured viable Salmonella within 60 min. Moreover, this bacteriophage cocktail reduced natural contamination in samples taken from an undistributed lot of commercial dried dog food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible.
J Food Prot. 2015 Jan;78(1):97-103. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-041.
Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.
Nitzan Soffer1, Tamar Abuladze1, Joelle Woolston1, Manrong Li1, Leigh Farris Hanna2, Serena Heyse2, Duane Charbonneau2 & Alexander Sulakvelidze1
1 Intralytix, Inc., Baltimore, MD, USA
2 The Procter and Gamble Company, Mason, OH, USA
Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×106 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×106 PFU/g) concentrations significantly (P < 0.01) reduced (by 60-92%) Salmonella contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×107 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.
Bacteriophage: Vol 6, No 3. Received 16 Mar 2016. Accepted 28 Jul 2016. Accepted author version posted online: 05 Aug 2016. Published online: 05 Aug 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21597081.2016.1220347.